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新东方GRE issue范文20篇(九)

2011-10-26 16:37| 投稿者: bjangel| 评论: 4

摘要: 新东方GRE issue范文20篇(九)13. "It is primarily through identification through social groups that we define ourselves."As primarily social animals, human beings naturally seek out different groups t ...
新东方GRE issue范文20篇(九)

13. "It is primarily through identification through social groups that we define ourselves."


As primarily social animals, human beings naturally seek out different groups to which they feel they have a certain sense of belonging. But there are two different aspects of this issue involved: identifying oneself with a social group for its social implications and identifying oneself with a social group for internal needs. A person can have two different identities, one that involves an individual's self-perception and the way that others see that particular individual. There is a natural dichotomy between the two sides of one's personality that is usually displayed between the different types of social groups with which an individual may identify oneself.


Self-definition can either be honest or dishonest. A person may join a social group because he or she thinks that the people that belong to this type of group are the same as he or she, whether it is true or not. The important detail to the individual is that he or she would like to be the same as the people that belong to this particular social group. As one example, consider a person who grew up poor and poorly educated, but became wealthy through the luck of the lottery or an inheritance from an unknown but wealthy relative. This individual then joins a wine-tasting club and buys season tickets to the local Philharmonic Orchestra and opera house. Although this individual knows nothing about wine, orchestras or opera, he or she is seeking to identify him or herself as a culturally literate person simply because the person is now wealthy. Through joining these social groups, the individual is seeking to define him or herself as socially elite, although the only difference now is that the person has great wealth and in reality probably does not fit in with the other members of the groups. In this case, one's self-definition by identifying with social groups does not match up with how society still identifies the individual.


On the other hand, there are individuals that very clearly demonstrate who they are by their identification with certain social groups. At a very basic level, younger people may join gangs based on a sense of identification with certain gang members or gang ideas. By displaying different identifying tattoos or certain colors, these people clearly identify who they are and what they stand for by the particular to which they belong. Certain religious groups also give a clear identity to their members. Joining an Islamic fundamentalist group such as the Taliban or an Orthodox Jewish organization indicates a certain identity that is common to all of its members. Political organizations such as Greenpeace and the National Organization for Women also make a certain statement about the identity of an individual member. In all of these cases, an individual's self-perception and how others view that individual are probably very similar. These types of organizations speak to a person's very fundamental values and joining one is probably that person's way of saying to the world "this is who I am".


Joining other types of groups may or may not indicate a person's self-identification. Being a Republican or a Democrat, for example, may just be a matter of whichever party your parents belong to. Spending time with a particular group of friends may only mean that you like only one of the people in the group or you have nothing better to do, it may have nothing to do with your self-identification. People that belong to these groups do not necessarily belong to any one social group for identification purposes; it may be only a matter of convenience.


It depends on the individual and the particular social group under discussion as to whether we primarily identify ourselves through association with social groups. Once the individual or the social group has been identified, a determination must still be made as to whether the individual has joined for self-identification purposes or to impress upon others a certain image of that individual.


(656 words)


    论题


    "我们主要通过与社会群体的认同而来界定我们自身。"


    作为具有显著社会性的动物,人类自然会去寻觅某些他们觉得与其存在某种归属感的不同群体。但这个问题涉及两个方面:基于某一社会群体的社会含义而认同该群体,以及出于某些内在需要而认同某一社会群体。一个人可以拥有两个不同的身份,一种身份涉及到个人的自我感受,另一个所涉及的是他人对这个特定个人的看法。在一个人性格的这两方面之间,存在着一种自然的两分法。个人的性格一般就体现在这一个人所可能认同的不同社会群体之间。


    自我界定可以是诚实的,亦可以是不诚实的。一个人之所以加入某一社会群体,可能是因为他(她)认为属于这一群体的那些人与他(她)相同,无论这是真是假。对于这个个人具有重要性的一个细节是,他(她)希望与属于这一特定社会群体的人们相同。例如,我们不妨考虑一下这样一个人,他出身贫穷,没能受过良好的教育,但通过彩票的运气或由于继承了一位无名但却有钱的亲戚的遗产而一夜暴富。此人然后加入一个品酒俱乐部,并购买当地爱乐乐团和歌剧院的季票。虽然此君对酒、乐队或歌剧一窍不通,但他(她)却竭力将自己表现为有文化修养的人,仅仅因为他(她)现在很有钱。通过介入这些社会群体,此人力图将自己界定为社会精英,虽然现在唯一的区分是,这人极其有钱,而实际上他(她)与这些群体内的其他成员格格不入。在此情形中,通过认同某些社会群体而来进行自我界定,这与社会如何看待这个人仍然相去甚远。


    另一方面,有些人则通过他们与某些社会群体的认同而明白无误地来表明他们是何种人。在某个甚为基本的层面上,青少年会基于他们与某些帮派成员或帮派理念的认同感而参加某些帮派。通过展示与众不同的认别性纹身图案或某些颜色,这些人明确表明他们是谁,以及他们代表着什么。某些宗教团体也会赋予其成员有某个明白无误的身份。加入诸如塔利班一类的伊斯兰原教旨主义团体或者正统派犹太教组织标志着其成员普遍共有的某种身份。像"绿色和平"以及"全国妇女组织"等政治团体也在就某个个体成员的身份作出某种陈述。在所有这些情形中,个体的自我感受,以及他人对其所形成的看法,二者可能甚为近似。这些类型的组织诉诸于一个人极为基本的价值观,而加入这样一种组织可能就成为这个人向世界表明"我就是这样一个人"的一种方式。


    加入其他类别的组织可能表明,但也不一定表明一个人的自我认同。例如,成为共和党还是民主党成员,这可能只与你父母属于哪个政党有关。与特定一群朋友在一起,这可能只意味着你只喜欢该群体中的一个人,或者因为你除此之外无所事事。这与你的自我认同毫无关系。属于这些群体的人并非必定出于认同的目的而属于任一社会群体。这可能只是一种权宜之计而已。


    至于我们是否主要通过与社会群体的联系而来表明我们的身份,这取决于个人以及所涉及的特定社会群体。即使个人或社会群体得以被判明,我们还有待于去确定,一个人加入某一社会群体,究竟是出于自我认同的目的呢,还是为了将其个人形象烙在他人心头。
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